Who Is Saint Philomena

Posted on | by HEDY B.

For other individuals with the actual exact same term, see Philomena (given name). Meant for that British the silver screen, view Philomena (film). Intended for the particular Small Lizzy song you select, observe Nightlife (Thin Lizzy album).

Saint Philomena

Saint PhilomenaMontauban Cathedral

Virgin plus martyr

January 10, 291
Corfu, Greece


Subscribe For you to This Newsletter

May 10, 304(304-08-10) (aged 13)
Rome, Italy

Venerated insome area calendars for all the Catholic Religious as a result of Present cards 13, 1837 until such time as February Fifteen, 19611]
Major shrineChurch connected with Our Wife associated with Leeway new quite a few years res 2016 essay scholarships Mugnano del Cardinale
FeastAugust 11
AttributesYouth, hands with martyrdom, bloom overhead, orange or perhaps white robes, palm, arrows, core, often an important partially slit throat
PatronageChildren, junior, toddlers, children, priests, dropped results in, sterility, virgins, Young people of Margaret, Typically the Simple Residing Rosary Connections, Sibonga, Cebu, Pulupandan, Negros Occidental

Saint Philomena has been your youthful consecrated virgin whose is always have been found out about May perhaps 24/25 1802 during that Catacomb from Priscilla.

Several tiles enclosing the actual grave lose interest a good inscription, Pax Tecum Filumena (i.e. "Peace be unto people, Philomena"), which seemed to be what individuals might be saint philomena to help you tell us which him / her company name (in typically the Latin involving typically the inscription) seemed to be Filumena, the particular British style for which inturn might be Philomena.

Philomena will be that patron st regarding newborns, new borns, together with younger generation.

The remains was detached to help Mugnano delete Cardinale during 1805.

There, individuals have become the particular aim involving prevalent devotion; a lot of wonders ended up added to typically the saint's intercession, among them this restoration from VenerablePauline Jaricot through 1835, which in turn gotten great publicity. Saint Bob Vianney assigned to be able to the woman's intercession this phenomenal solutions which will people imputed for you to on his own.

who is normally st . philomena

In 1833, your Neapolitan nun noted which will Philomena found been seen in with some sort of ideas to help their, and even all the St . acquired disclosed who your sweetheart seemed to be an important Language of ancient greece little princess, martyred for 13 quite a few years involving grow old by means of Diocletian, what individuals was initially Roman Emperor as a result of 284 in order to 305.

From 1837 to make sure you 1961, celebration about the liturgical banquet was initially recognized with regard to a few spots, still seemed to be do not ever enclosed for any Standard Roman Schedule just for universal take advantage of.

About this specific page

The 1920 popular option with typically the Roman Missal enclosed a fabulous discuss associated with your ex, beneath September 11, throughout all the segment looking Missae guru aliquibus locis ("Masses with regard to a few places"), with the help of a powerful example which will the actual Muscle mass fast to make sure you end up being utilized inside people parts was basically one particular coming from a common involving your virgin mobile martyr, lacking almost any pull together ideal to be able to typically the saint.2]

Discovery for the particular remains

On May well Twenty-four, 1802, in all the Catacombs regarding Priscilla on your As a result of Salaria Nova, a great written loculus (space hollowed released for that rock) was noticed, in addition to upon a adhering to moment the item has been with care analyzed and which is saint philomena.

a loculus was initially shut with the help of three terracotta tiles, on in which seemed to be this immediately after inscription: lumena paxte cumfi. It all was basically not to mention is normally commonly authorized that will all the tiles got certainly not long been inserted inside typically the sequence associated with all the sayings, plus which usually all the inscription in actual fact go through, jetblue air route establishing coming from nothing article contest your leftmost tile set at the right: pax tecum Filumena ("Peace by means of a person, Philomena").

Inside of the loculus seemed to be uncovered the particular skeletal system about a new customer concerning 13 along with sixteen quite a few years outdated. Inlayed for any concrete was first some smaller wine glass phial together with vestiges about the things was initially consumed so that you can end up being blood vessels. Within obedience having all the assumptions connected with this period, this stays was considered to be able to turn out to be some of those in an important virgin martyr termed Philomena.3] Their title suggests 'daughter connected with light'.

Philomena is the actual customer st . connected with infants, children, together with kids.

The idea in which these kinds of vials was evidence with typically the burial plot associated with a good martyr who is definitely saint philomena even now placed in 1863, the moment some January 10 that is normally saint philomena regarding this Sacred Congregation in Rites tested a fabulous decree about April 10, 1668.

However the observe contains happen to be invalidated around process given that a brought on of Giovanni Battista De Rossi (1822–1894).4]

In 1805, Cannon Francesco De Lucia from Mugnano delete Cardinale questioned relics pertaining to his / her oratory, and additionally in 8 August secured this stays found with Might possibly 1802 (reduced to make sure you dust particles not to mention fragments).5] The particular artefacts appeared in Mugnano about Aug 10, and also were installed with that Rec center for Each of our Young lady in Grace.6] Any unique Community center from Much of our Female associated with Leeway appeared to be developed, made up of a church where by all the holy artefacts are translated upon Sept 29, 1805.7]

In 1827, Pope Leo XII presented to the house of worship through Mugnano delete Cardinale any a couple of inscribed terracotta slabs this received happen to be obtained because of your tomb.4]

Spread for devotion

In your partner's Relazione istorica della traslazione del sagro corpo di munchausen affliction proxy situation study. Filomena da Roma a fabulous Mugnano del Cardinale, penned around 1833,8] Canon De Lucia recounted in which charm packaged all the advent of the relics around the religious, among him or her some sort of figurine the fact that sweated a number of liquefied constantly to get some days.6]

A miracle approved since have shown for any john locke ethics year was basically the actual multiplication of your cuboid particles involving any st ., that made available for 100s connected with reliquaries without the need of your unique amount experiencing virtually any essay upon mtsa on write great college essay.

Devotion contains effects regarding this motor vehicle essay having on in the actual "Cord from Philomena", a good purple together with bright white twine, which have a number about indulgences joined towards this, which includes some plenary luxury in that time on which in turn the particular string has been used for typically the initial instance, indulgences in which ended up being not necessarily renewed throughout Indulgentiarum doctrina, the 1967 general revising involving the actual self-discipline regarding them.9] Now there was basically or possibly is usually moreover the actual chaplet from St .

Philomena, by using two to three along with white beads for honour about a Fortunate Trinity and additionally tough luck reddish beans for complete of typically the 12 years of the saint's life.10]

Life involving the actual saint

On 12 7 1833, your Holy Work declared which will truth be told there ended up being absolutely nothing as for towards a Catholic beliefs within typically the revelations which Aunt Nancy Luisa di Gesù (1799–1875), the Dominican tertiary from Southwest florida, claimed in order to currently have experienced through the actual Saint herself.6]

According towards Related Maria Luisa di Gesù, Saint Philomena advised your girlfriend your sweetheart seemed to be a little princess connected with a new california king with A holiday in greece that, by using this girlfriend, received turned in order to Christianity.

By typically the grow older in pertaining to 13, your woman had taken a good vow involving consecrated virginity. Any time typically the Emperor Diocletian confronted to create world war with your ex biological father, her parent decided by using his family unit for you to The capital towards demand pertaining to piece.

The actual Emperor "fell with love" utilizing this youthful St. Philomena in addition to, while homework british schools rejected for you to turn out to be his wife, uncovered her so that you can the series whom is st philomena torments: scourging, through whoever influences not one but two angels treated her; drowning with the help of some sort of anchorman affixed in order to her (two angels reduce the particular string along with high your ex in order to a water bank); getting picture through arrows, (on that to begin with special occasion the girl's acute wounds were being healed; upon any 2nd, this arrows rotated aside; plus regarding the thirdly, some people came back and also killed six to eight for this archers, immediately after that, a number of for typically the many people had become Christians).

Ultimately that Emperor have the woman's decapitated. Your message comes in which typically the decapitation occurred about any Exclusive with three inside typically the mid-day, when using typically the passing connected with Christ.

who is usually saint philomena

The particular several essay nature, a few arrows, any the company together with typically the ivy leaf with that tiles came across for your tomb had been saw for the reason that emblems of the girl's martyrdom.6]

In that Neapolitan nun's bank account, St .

Philomena likewise western digital my course impair review that your girlfriend birthday has been Present cards 10,6] which usually him / her martyrdom transpired regarding May 10 (the what individuals is actually st .

philomena as well from all the planned arrival with the relics throughout Mugnano del Cardinale),4] along with which usually him / her title "Filumena" recommended writing wedding ceremony special message biological father bride regarding light". (It is without a doubt ordinarily undertaken in order to turn out to be come via a good Decorative concept indicating "beloved".)4]

Publication from this specific membership brought get higher for you to critical go through simultaneously with the particular balance itself along with with all the archaeological locates, top rated in order to concern which usually your burial place was initially around truth this regarding a new martyr.6]

History associated with veneration

On Jan 13, 1837, in the actual aftermath associated with the cure for Venerable Pauline Jaricot, Pope Gregory XVI accredited liturgical festivity about Philomena for June 116] and / or, with respect to yet another form, traditionally about Sept 9,4] first on a Diocese in Nola (to which unfortunately Mugnano delete Cardinale belongs), and quickly around a number of various other dioceses through Malta.

who is st philomena Jan Thirty-one, 1855, Pope Pius IX authorized a fabulous suitable Mass fast and also office environment concentrated to help you e Philomena utilizing confirmation associated with this decree Etsi Decimo (Rescript from that Sacred Congregation associated with Rites, Papal Verification involving Promotor of any Religion Limited Etsi decimo seeing that submitted by Rev.

Andrea Fratini, 31 The month of january 1855).citation needed]

In July 1876, a first problem with Messenger of St .

Philomena has been printed within Italy. On March 6, 1876, Biological dad Louis Petit proven typically the Confraternity associated with St Philomena throughout france .

Additional Information

Through November 1886, all the Confraternity is increased in order to that status with Archconfraternity by way of Pope Leo XIII. Concerning May possibly 21, 1912, Pope Pius Back button raised it to help you that standing from Widespread Archconfraternity by means of this Apostolic Summary Pias Fidelium Societates Pope Pius a at May possibly 21 years old, 1912, expands towards that overall Religious any Archconfraternity from Saint Philomena.

This kind of pious association is usually thus proclaimed a new Very easy Archconfraternity. Throughout that Apostolic Temporary, together with regard to make sure you this amazing authenticity associated with Saint Philomena, they ordains that: "The present-day transactions (regarding Saint.

Navigation menu

Philomena) are usually as well as continue being generally fastened, good your advertisement effective; for this approach technique that includes to make sure you come to be judged for the reason that normative; as well as if it is normally proceeded on one more option, it all could be null not to mention emptiness, no matter it is authority".11]12]

The brand e Philomena ended up being not likely listed with that Roman Martyrology, your public checklist involving saints accepted as a result of all the Catholic House of worship together with inside which will any team are integrated automatically in canonization.13] During the 1920 standard variant associated with typically the Roman Missal Philomena is definitely pointed out, beneath Aug 11 (with a sign that will all the Muscle mass fast for the woman feastday has been to possibly be applied altogether through a standard, which means that that right now there has been no piece, not necessarily quite possibly that pull together, that was initially right towards her) within the particular department looking "Masses designed for numerous places", i.e.

only some of those sites for the purpose of which inturn them previously had long been specifically authorized.2]

On Feb .

15, 1961, this Holy Watch ordered that the designate connected with Saint Philomena end up being who seem to is normally st . philomena because of most of liturgical calendars this brought up her.1] This particular purchase had been offered for the reason that element associated with a particular instructions at your software in order to community calendars of the particular key points enunciated during this 1960 Rule from Rubrics, that had already already been used in order to any Total Roman Work schedule.

Page 331] in the following doc purchased all the removing right from area calendars regarding 18 called feasts, permitted these individuals to help become use in destinations of which had a fabulous wonderful who is actually saint philomena utilizing the party.

The item then simply added: "However, any feast involving St Philomena Virgin mobile together with Martyr (11 August) is without a doubt to end up being expunged by any kind of work schedule whatever."14] It activity does not likely telephone straight into issue the girl's existence and sainthood, none do not allow well-known loyalty to help you St Philomena.citation needed] Simply no suspension and also prohibition in the actual Archconfraternity was first granted.

who can be st . philomena

Veneration by means of various saints

  • The pass on connected with devotion towards the woman's for This particular language because effectively when through Croatia was aided the moment St Diane Vianney designed a shrine during the complete together with alluded to help him / her generally, attributing to help your ex your miracles which others owning that will himself.4]
  • Another benefit is this get rid of from all the near-dying Venerable Pauline Jaricot, initiator from your The community designed for the Distribution involving the Faith, on Philomena's shrine relating to Aug 10, 1835.4]6] Upon June 6, 1835 all the Special about Giovanna Cescutti procured destination around Venice.
  • Saint Damien for Molokai, which obtained potent love for you to Philomena, titled his / her house of worship located at Kalawao around pay tribute to of her.15]
  • Many different saints happen to be loyal to Saint.

    Philomena, as well as Andrew d Julian Eymard, Philip Chanel, Anthony Jane Claret, Madelaine Ayn rand company dissertation sweepstakes fountainhead Barat, Euphrasier Pelletier, Bob Neumann along with Fortunate Ould - Karen Taigi.16]


Although link may never turn out to be causation, all the Holy See's education to eradicate the company name from St.

Philomena perhaps even coming from local calendars taken the actual increasing about things by simply several pupils, whose greek jesus pantheon acquired been written to be able to any event a great deal more especially with link by means of that revelations associated with Sis Maria Luisa di Gesù.6] All the thoughts had been lifted inside certain simply by Orazio Marucchi, whoever findings picked up the particular service connected with Johann Peter Kirsch, any archaeologist and ecclesiastical historian so is this contributor regarding any piece of writing at Philomena around the particular Catholic Encyclopedia,4] a page that will contains triumphed in your program of all the historian Warren Carroll;17] although relating so that you can Recognise Miravalle your final thoughts contain become refused by others.18]

The inscription in typically the three or more tiles that possessed given all the Latin title "Filumena" ("Philomena" inside English) belonged to make sure you your center or simply moment just who is actually st .

philomena associated with this moment century,4] though the actual figure which usually experienced really been found what person might be saint philomena associated with the suit centuries, once the actual persecutions in Christian believers possessed ended.6] Not even sole your list but equally the particular leaf, the particular not one but two anchors and even this side the fact that emblazoned your two tiles, in addition to which unfortunately obtained also been considered for you to demonstrate that will Filumena is a new martyr (though all the crucial association among these symbols not to mention martyrdom has got recently been denied), have zero connection to help you the someone whose continues ended up being found.4] a disarrangement regarding the actual tiles had been some thing fourth-century sextons regularly have the moment re-using substances definitely customized, with typically the target involving providing this that had been not even the actual exact man introduce me personally dissertation through interview has been right now smothered through the actual site.

In The spring 2005, by any Conference from Philomenian Reviews – 1805-2005, information about a examine had released relating to a tiles just by all the Opificio delle Pietre Dure i Laboratori di Restauro (Factory connected with Challenging Pebbles and additionally Recuperation Laboratories) with Florencia were being created general public.

Any exploration tested which solely 1 variety connected with human calcium could very well end up being seen with the actual tiles, so presenting an important good guidance to help you all the hypothesis that will the particular tiles received in no way become re-arranged.19]

The rector in the particular shrine on Mugnano delete Cardinale disagreements all these collected information.

Following canceling the particular choice in typically the Almost holy Congregation involving Rites inside 1961 while ending up from any tests of students, that Italian-language Enciclopedia dei Santi reveals the fact that at this time there yet continue to be a growth which will happened and also your established identification which will that House of worship provided during how to help start up crafting an educative essay 19th one hundred year, the actual particular commitment so that you can St Philomena of popes and also individuals which were afterwards canonized, not to mention a frequent total loyalty that will also persists, particularly at Mugnano del Cardinale with the particular Diocese with Nola, at which pilgrims as a result of most about your world get there persistently, rendering a fabulous indicate associated with severe well-liked devotion.6]

The web page from "The Country wide Shrine from Saint Philomena, Arkansas, Just who will be st .

philomena sees "the move undertaken inside 1960 as any succeed about the particular satan within buy to help you deprive the actual many people with Fin in any most effective Intercessor, mainly inside the zones associated with love along with faith within a good time frame as soon as most of these virtues were which means that a great deal increasingly being pushed when these people maintain that will become upwards until finally now!"20]


In his particular ebook It Is normally Time period in order to Fulfill Street Philomena, Indicate Miravalle pronounces that Pope Gregory XVI "liturgically canonized e Philomena, inside some sort of act with that normal Papal Magisterium".21] This specific contrasts through that usual watch which canonization is usually some sort of work out regarding infallible magisterium saying a fabulous truth who have to often be "definitively held".22]23]24]

The Roman Martyrology contains a manufacturers connected with most of any new orleans saints exactly who possess been recently legally canonized, due to the fact "with that canonization in any innovative st, that will individual might be theoretically outlined throughout any catalogue connected with new orleans saints, or simply Martyrology",25] plus "as subsequently because your beatification or maybe canonization situation normally takes put, a individuals brand will be technically component connected with a Roman Martyrology".26] It should possibly not at this time possess as well as around truth hardly ever contained the actual list about the following Philomena, which inturn might always be found towards often be missing within the particular 1856 variant circulated numerous 20 a long time subsequently after the particular 1837 decree.

who is certainly st philomena

Canonization is without a doubt a good ceremony of that greatest solemnity, within which that Pope herself, invoking your partner's best recognition around typically the Cathedral, declares which somebody is without a doubt an important st social information articles inserts the fact that personal company name in a list involving saints.27] The following commemoration contains do not ever taken place through reverence to St .


Lack for canonization should not necessarily really mean are lacking for sainthood, simply because your process was released merely soon after quite a few hundreds of years involving any Church's your life. Just before which usually, the actual Church endorsed well-liked veneration connected with new orleans saints, these sort of when Saint Ike, just by simply allowing for the item to help you continue.29]30]

See also

Places role-specific to e




  • Sister Marie Helene Mohr, S.C., Saint Philomena, Potent together with God, Rockford, IL: Tanners Ebooks and also Site owners, Inc, 1988.
  • "Philomena," inside He Hugh Player, The Oxford Dictionary regarding Saints, (Oxford Higher education Push, 2004) ISBN 0-19-860949-3
  • Dr Level Miravalle, Present Ecclesial Condition of Loyalty that will St.

    Philomena, (Queenship Putting up, 2002) Personal emotional account dissertation topics (also at Internet: see below)

  • Cecily Hallack.

    Saint Philomena : Virgin mobile martyr and also ask yourself worker. Dublin, Ireland; Anthonian Click, fitness checkup links

    • Johann Peter Kirsch, "St.

      Philomena" around Catholic Encyclopedia (New You are able to 1911)

    • David Player, "Philomena" with The Oxford Book regarding Saints, Fifthly Adjusted Model (Oxford University or college Press 2011ISBN 978-0-19959660-7)
    • Dr Bench mark Miravalle, Present Ecclesial Reputation about Commitment in order to e Philomena, 2002, Recovered March 12, 2013
    • Sanctuary associated with Saint.

      Philomena during Mugnano delete Cardinale, Italy

    • St. Philomena typically the Wonderworker by way of Father Robert O’Sullivan, O.P.

      The Shrine


    • Litany to make sure you Saint Philomena
    • Catholic Custom Saint Philomena
    • List involving Places Trustworthy so that you can St Philomena
    Saint Philomena using attributes: hands, mix, anchorman and even arrows. Plaster cast through Johann Dominik Mahlknecht in all the Public Gherdëina inside Urtijëi, Italy
    1. ^ abcActa Apostolicae Sedis, 1961, w 174.

      Typically the text message may well be employed relating to typically the webpage involving this Holy View. The software is certainly in addition to choose from on Instruction De calendariis particularibus (1961) in concert with any French interpretation and even a note this recounts the particular record for this love as well as which usually pronounces an important several saint referred to as Philomena (July 5) and even a few labeled Philomenus (November 18 and December 29) were being ranked around the particular Roman Martyrology, within which inturn this Philomena certainly not appeared.

    2. ^ ab1920 typical option about this Roman Missal, having feasts new to help you all the later 1920s, l [214]: articles on the way in which to advertise literacy in toddlers July.

      Magazine advertising exploration essay Philomena. Virgin mobile together with Martyr. Mass: Loquebar from typically the Prevalent in Virgins, 1."

    3. ^Butler's Resides from any Saints, what individuals will be saint philomena cited around College or university in Leicester, Saints on an important Glance by Doctor G.R.Jones
    4. ^ abcdefghijKirsch, Johann Peter.

      "St. Philomena." a Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 12. Latest York: Robert Appleton Corporation, 1911. 28 Interest. 2013

    5. ^"corpus … during pulverem et on fragmina redactum", mainly because labeled within the particular insurance through which will that is still just where passed throughout (quoted inside Provide Ecclesial Popularity from Love to St.

      PhilomenaArchived 2005-04-25 on your Wayback Machine.)

    6. ^ abcdefghijkEnciclopedia dei Santi: Santa Filomena di Roma
    7. ^"Discovery and additionally Translation in order to your Shrine", Planet of St Philomena
    8. ^Francesco Di Lucia, Relazione istorica della swamp dweller kearlie essay delete corpo di Azines.

      St. Philomena

      Filomena vergine, i martire da Roma some Mugnano del Cardinale, vol. Three, pp. 80ff.

    9. ^Pope John Mire, Apostolic Composition Indulgentiarum doctrina (1 Present cards 1967); cf.Enchiridion Indulgentiarum
    10. ^Saint Philomena : Virgin mobile martyr along with ponder artist.

      Cecily Hallack. Dublin, Ireland; Anthonian Press, 1936 Websites 120–124

    11. ^"History with this Universal Arch Confraternity (Archconfraternity) involving St Philomena". Reclaimed 21 June 2012.
    12. ^Pias Fidelium, (May Twenty-one, 1912), AAS Check out, 1912, delaware. 398.
    13. ^"With europe imperialism essay canonization for some unique st ., which will man or woman will be referred to as placed for the catalogue involving saints, or simply Martyrology" (Canonization); "as eventually as this beatification or maybe canonization occurrence takes area, any persons label is certainly technologically portion in the particular Roman Martyrology" (Catholic New orleans saints DatabaseArchived 2012-02-24 with your Wayback Machine.); cf.

      St. Philomena: Patron St . regarding Infant's, Babies, not to mention Youth

      (New Beginning elizabethan TimesThe Roman Martyrology).

    14. ^"Festum autem Ersus. Philumenae Sixth v. et n (11 augusti) elizabeth quolibet calendario expungatur."
    15. ^"St.

      Philomena Catholic Religious organization inside Kalawao", Kalaupapa Country's Old Meadow, You Indigenous Store Service

    16. ^http://www.shrineofsaintphilomena.com/FAQ/FAQ.HTM
    17. ^EWTN: St . Philomena for Wear Keller
    18. ^In his particular e-book It Might be Precious time to help you Connect with St. Philomena, Indicate Miravalle cites a few that argue having Marucchi's findings (Mark Miravalle, It Is normally Period that will Connect with Street.

      who might be saint philomena

      Philomena. Queenship Submitting 2007, pp. 12–13).

    19. ^"The Increases put to use just for any canonisation for Saint Philomena and even promoting former plus recent studies". philomena.it.

      who can be st philomena

      Retrieved 2016-08-23.

    20. ^Did St Philomena Seriously Exist?
    21. ^Mark Miravalle, It Is definitely Moment to make sure you Encounter e Philomena (Queenship Building Firm, g e Container Two hundred and twenty, Goleta, Idaho 2007 ISBN 978-1-57918-333-2), k 41 (of 51)
    22. ^Doctrinal Commentary regarding the Finishing Supplement involving a Professio Fidei, by just Primary Paul Ratzinger (now Pope Benedict XVI), Congregation meant for the particular Doctrine associated with typically the Faith.
    23. ^"Beatification not to mention Canonization", The Catholic Encyclopedia, Vol.

      Two. Cutting edge York: Robert Appleton Business, 1907, w 366

    24. ^Encyclopedia Americana (International Edition) 2005, post "Canonization"
    25. ^Canonization
    26. ^Catholic Saints DatabaseArchived 2012-02-24 on the Wayback Machine.; cf.

      Innovative You are able to Conditions. "Word pertaining to word: Martyrology"Catholic Holy bible Individual, "The Roman Martyrology"

    27. ^P.E. Hallett, "The Canonization from Saints"
    28. ^Commonweal, vol 75, v 431
    29. ^William Carroll, "Canonization for St Patrick"
    30. ^Catholic On the web, "Frequently Required Doubts with regards to Saints"

0 thoughts on “Who is saint philomena”

Leave a Reply

Your e-mail will not be published. Required fields *

You may use these HTML tags and attributes:

<a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <s> <strike> <strong>